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Hockey

From 1 January 2013

 

RULES

OF HOCKEY

1

Rules of Hockey

including explanations

Effective from 1 January 2013

Copyright © FIH 2012

The International Hockey Federation

Rue du Valentin 61

CH – 1004 Lausanne

Switzerland

Tel. : + 41 21 641 0606

Fax : + 41 21 641 0607

E-mail : info@fi h.ch

Internet : www.fi h.ch

2

Responsibility and Liability

Participants in hockey must be aware of the Rules

of Hockey and of other information in this publication.

They are expected to perform according to the Rules.

Emphasis is placed on safety. Everyone involved in the

game must act with consideration for the safety of others.

Relevant national legislation must be observed.

Players must ensure that their equipment does not

constitute a danger to themselves or to others by virtue

of its quality, materials or design.

The International Hockey Federation (FIH) does not

accept responsibility for any defects or non-compliance

of facilities and is not liable for any consequences resulting

from their use. Any verifi cation of facilities or equipment

conducted before a match is limited to ensuring an overall

appearance of compliance and sporting requirements.

Umpires exercise an important role controlling the game

and ensuring fair play.

Implementation and Authority

The Rules of Hockey apply to all hockey players

and offi cials. National Associations have discretion

to decide the date of implementation at national level.

The date of implementation for international competition

is 1 January 2013.

The Rules are issued by the FIH Rules Committee under

the authority of the International Hockey Federation.

Copyright is held by the International Hockey Federation.

Availability of the Rules

Information about the availability of the Rules on the FIH

website and about the purchase of Rules books

is included at the end of this publication.

3

CONTENTS

Introduction ............................................................................................. 4

Terminology ............................................................................................ 8

PLAYING THE GAME

1 Field of play ............................................................................. 10

2 Composition of teams .......................................................... 11

3 Captains ................................................................................... 14

4 Players’ clothing and equipment ........................................ 15

5 Match and result .................................................................... 17

6 Start and re-start the match ................................................ 18

7 Ball outside the fi eld .............................................................. 20

8 Method of scoring ................................................................. 21

9 Conduct of play : players ..................................................... 21

10 Conduct of play : goalkeepers and players

with goalkeeping privileges .................................................. 25

11 Conduct of play : umpires .................................................... 26

12 Penalties ................................................................................... 28

13 Procedures for taking penalties ......................................... 29

14 Personal penalties ................................................................. 37

UMPIRING

1 Objectives ................................................................................ 39

2 Applying the rules ................................................................... 40

3 Umpiring skills ......................................................................... 42

4 Umpiring signals ..................................................................... 45

FIELD AND EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS

1 Field and fi eld equipment ..................................................... 48

2 Stick ........................................................................................... 55

3 Ball ............................................................................................. 60

4 Goalkeeper’s equipment ....................................................... 61

Additional Information Available .......................................................... 62

4

INTRODUCTION

THE RULES CYCLE

The Rules in this new publication are effective from 1 January 2013

at international level. National Associations have discretion to decide

the date of implementation at national level.

A starting date is specifi ed but not an end date. We will avoid implementing

changes to these Rules before the 2014 Hockey World

Cups and perhaps beyond. However, in exceptional circumstances

the International Hockey Federation (FIH) retains the right to make

changes which will be notifi ed to National Associations and published

on the FIH website: www.fi h.ch.

RULES REVIEW

The FIH Rules Committee regularly reviews all the Rules of Hockey.

It takes account of information and observations from a wide

variety of sources including national hockey associations, players,

coaches, offi cials, media and spectators together with match and

competition reports, video analysis and Rules trials. Ideas which

have already been trialled with the FIH Rules Committee’s approval

in local or limited circumstances are especially valuable. Rules

changes can then be based on practical experience. The fi rst, and

main, change referred to below has come about in this way.

RULES CHANGES

The way a goal is scored is amended; it now includes what is sometimes

referred to as an “own goal”. That is, a goal can now be

scored after the ball is touched in the circle by either an attacker or

a defender. The detailed text is provided in Rule 8. It is described

as a “mandatory experimental rule” so that it applies at all levels of

hockey but, because it is a signifi cant change, it will be monitored

closely. After a period of review, the FIH Rules Committee will decide

whether or not it becomes a permanent change to the Rules.

The other notable change permits the ball to be raised intentionally

but safely directly from a free hit using a push, fl ick or scoop action.

5

This is essentially an evolution of what is known as the “self-pass”

from a free hit. By having the option to raise the ball immediately,

opposing players will not have had the opportunity to get closer than

fi ve metres; a raised ball should be safer. The resultant changes are

to Rules 13.2 d and e.

As a consequence of the changes above, Rules 13.2.f and g have

been deleted.

Technical changes have been made to the stick specifi cation later

in these Rules. The specifi cation has been re-written to make it

clearer; the method of measuring the bow or rake has been revised.

Stick manufacturers have been aware of this intended change for

some time so new sticks on the market should be fully compliant.

However, we are aware that some players will have older sticks. We

therefore recommend that National Associations introduce this new

specifi cation sympathetically at lower levels.

Otherwise, changes in this edition of the Rules are clarifi cations of

existing Rules. To draw attention to all changes, even these minor

points of clarifi cation, a line appears in the margin of any text which

has been changed.

PLAYING RULES IN INTERNATIONAL MATCHES

One other change to mention is the note added to Rule 14.1.b

about a green card. In an international match, a green card indicates

a temporary suspension of 2 minutes playing time whereas in

all other matches it is a warning.

The green card has been used this way at international level for

some time. This recognises that these matches are played under

the control of a technical table, with experienced players and offi -

cials. Some other small variations in the playing Rules also occur in

these top level matches. It must be understood, however, that they

only apply in these matches; all other matches must be played in

accordance with the Rules of Hockey unless otherwise agreed by

the FIH Rules Committee after submission by a National Hockey

Association.

6

APPLYING THE RULES

The FIH Rules Committee continues to be concerned that some

Rules are not applied consistently.

Rule 7.4.c: ball intentionally played over the back-line by a defender

and no goal is scored. If it is clear that the action is intentional,

umpires should not hesitate to award a penalty corner.

Rule 9.7 specifi es that players must not play the ball with any part

of the stick when the ball is above shoulder height. For consistency

and fairness, shoulder height should be strictly enforced.

Rule 9.12: obstruction. Umpires should penalise shielding the ball

with the stick more strictly. They should also look out for a tackling

player who by pushing or leaning on an opponent causes them to

lose possession of the ball.

Rule 13.2.a: ball stationary at a free hit. Umpires are sometimes not

strict enough on requiring the ball to be stationary, albeit very briefl y,

for a free hit especially if it is taken using a self-pass.

RULES DEVELOPMENT

We believe our sport is enjoyable to play, offi ciate in and watch. Nevertheless,

we will continue to seek ways of making our game even

more enjoyable for all its participants while retaining its unique and

attractive characteristics. This enables our sport to develop which

is necessary in a world which makes large demands on personal

time and in which recreation and sport can contribute to personal

wellbeing.

The FIH Rules Committee will therefore continue to welcome

suggestions for Rules developments or for clarifi cation of current

Rules especially from National Hockey Associations. National

Associations are an important primary source of advice and

guidance but, if appropriate, Rules suggestions or questions can be

sent by email to info@fi h.ch or to the FIH postal address.

7

MEMBERSHIP OF THE FIH RULES COMMITTEE, 2012 :

Chair :

Janet Ellis

Secretary :

Roger Webb

Members :

Richard Aggiss Richard Akpokavie

Jorge Alcover Eric Donegani

Marten Eikelboom Peter Elders

Margaret Hunnaball Michael Krause

Ramesh Patel Alain Renaud

Peter von Reth

8

TERMINOLOGY

Player

One of the participants in a team.

Team

A team consists of a maximum of sixteen persons composed

of a maximum of eleven players on the fi eld and up to fi ve

substitutes.

Field Player

One of the participants on the fi eld other than the goalkeeper.

Goalkeeper

One of the participants of each team on the fi eld who wears full

protective equipment comprising at least headgear, leg guards

and kickers and who is also permitted to wear goalkeeping

hand protectors and other protective equipment.

Field Player with Goalkeeping Privileges

One of the participants on the fi eld who does not wear full

protective equipment but who has goalkeeping privileges ;

this player wears a different colour shirt to their other team

members as identifi cation.

Attack (Attacker)

The team (player) which (who) is trying to score a goal.

Defence (Defender)

The team (player) which (who) is trying to prevent a goal

being scored.

Back-line

The shorter (55 metres) perimeter line.

Goal-line

The back-line between the goal-posts.

Side-line

The longer (91.40 metres) perimeter line.

Circle

The area enclosed by and including the two quarter circles

and the lines joining them at each end of the fi eld opposite

the centre of the back-lines.

9

23 metres area

The area enclosed by and including the line across the fi eld

22.90 metres from each back-line, the relevant part of the

side-lines, and the back-line.

Playing the ball : fi eld player

Stopping, defl ecting or moving the ball with the stick.

Shot at goal

The action of an attacker attempting to score by playing the

ball towards the goal from within the circle.

The ball may miss the goal but the action is still a

“ shot at goal ” if the player’s intention is to score

with a shot directed towards the goal.

Hit

Striking the ball using a swinging movement of the stick

towards the ball.

Push

Moving the ball along the ground using a pushing movement

of the stick after the stick has been placed close to the ball.

When a push is made, both the ball and the head of the

stick are in contact with the ground.

Flick

Pushing the ball so that it is raised off the ground.

Scoop

Raising the ball off the ground by placing the head of the

stick under the ball and using a lifting movement.

Forehand

Playing a ball which is to the right of the player in a forwards

direction.

Playing distance

The distance within which a player is capable of reaching

the ball to play it.

Tackle

An action to stop an opponent retaining possession of the ball.

Offence

An action contrary to the Rules which may be penalised by

an umpire.

10

PLAYING THE GAME

1 Field of play

The information below provides a simplifi ed

description of the fi eld of play. Detailed specifi cations

of the fi eld and equipment are provided in a separate

section at the end of these Rules.

1.1 The fi eld of play is rectangular, 91.40 metres long and

55.00 metres wide.

1.2 Side-lines mark the longer perimeters of the fi eld ; backlines

mark the shorter perimeters of the fi eld.

1.3 The goal-lines are the parts of the back-lines between the

goal-posts.

1.4 A centre-line is marked across the middle of the fi eld.

1.5 Lines known as 23 metres lines are marked across the fi eld

22.90 metres from each back-line.

1.6 Areas referred to as the circles are marked inside the fi eld

around the goals and opposite the centres of the backlines.

1.7 Penalty spots 150 mm in diameter are marked in front of

the centre of each goal with the centre of each spot 6.40

metres from the inner edge of the goal-line.

1.8 All lines are 75 mm wide and are part of the fi eld of play.

1.9 Flag-posts between 1.20 and 1.50 metres in height are

placed at each corner of the fi eld.

1.10 Goals are positioned outside the fi eld of play at the centre

of and touching each back-line.

11

2 Composition of teams

2.1 A maximum of eleven players from each team take part in

play at any particular time during the match.

If a team has more than the permitted number of

players on the fi eld, time should be stopped to

correct the situation. A personal penalty should be

awarded against the captain of the team involved.

Decisions taken prior to correcting the situation

cannot be changed.

Play and time is restarted with a free hit to the

opposing team unless another penalty had been

awarded against the offending team immediately

before time was stopped in which case that

penalty is taken.

2.2 Each team has either a goalkeeper or player with

goalkeeping privileges on the fi eld or plays only with fi eld

players.

Each team may play with :

– a goalkeeper wearing a different colour shirt

and full protective equipment comprising

at least headgear, leg guards and kickers ;

this player is referred to in these Rules as a

goalkeeper ; or

– a fi eld player with goalkeeping privileges

wearing a different colour shirt and who may

wear protective headgear (but not leg guards

and kickers or other goalkeeping protective

equipment) when inside their defending

23 metres area ; they must wear protective

headgear when defending a penalty corner

or penalty stroke ; this player is referred to

in these Rules as a player with goalkeeping

privileges ; or

12

– only fi eld players ; no player has goalkeeping

privileges or wears a different colour shirt ; no

player may wear protective headgear except a

face mask when defending a penalty corner

or a penalty stroke ; all team players wear the

same colour shirt.

Any change between these options must take

place as a substitution.

2.3 Each team is permitted to substitute from its players not on

the fi eld of play :

a substitution is permitted at any time except within the

period from the award of a penalty corner until after

it has been completed ; during this period substitution

is only permitted for injury to or suspension of the

defending goalkeeper or defending player with

goalkeeping privileges

If another penalty corner is awarded before

completion of the previous penalty corner,

substitution other than for an injured or suspended

defending goalkeeper or defending player with

goalkeeping privileges must not take place

until that subsequent penalty corner has been

completed.

At a penalty corner, a defending goalkeeper (ie

wearing full protective equipment) who is injured

or suspended may be substituted by another

goalkeeper wearing full protective equipment or

by a player with goalkeeping privileges.

At a penalty corner, a defending player with

goalkeeping privileges who is injured or suspended

may be substituted by another player with

goalkeeping privileges and not by a goalkeeper

wearing full protective equipment.

13

If a team has only fi eld players, no substitution

is permitted at a penalty corner until it has been

completed.

If the goalkeeper or player with goalkeeping

privileges is suspended, the offending team plays

with one less player.

b there is no limit to the number of players who are

permitted to be substituted at the same time or to the

number of times any player is permitted to substitute or

be substituted

c substitution of a player is permitted only after that

player has left the fi eld

d substitutions are not permitted for suspended players

during their suspension

e after completing a suspension, a player is permitted to

be substituted without fi rst returning to the fi eld

f fi eld players must leave or enter the fi eld for substitution

purposes within 3 metres of the centre-line on a side of

the fi eld agreed with the umpires

g time is stopped for substitution of goalkeepers (ie

wearing full protective equipment) but not for other

substitutions.

Time is stopped briefl y to permit a goalkeeper who

is wearing full protective equipment to take part in a

substitution. The time stoppage is not extended for a

goalkeeper to put on or take off protective equipment

as part of a substitution including following a

goalkeeper injury or suspension. If necessary, play

should continue with a player with goalkeeping

privileges and wearing a different coloured shirt or

only with fi eld players while a substitute goalkeeper

puts on or takes off protective equipment.

14

2.4 Field players who leave the fi eld for injury treatment,

refreshment, to change equipment or for some reason

other than substitution are only permitted to re-enter

between the 23 metres areas on the side of the fi eld used

for substitutions.

Leaving and re-entering the fi eld as part of play

(eg when a defender puts on a face mask at a

penalty corner) takes place at any appropriate part

of the fi eld.

2.5 No persons other than fi eld players, players with goalkeeping

privileges, goalkeepers and umpires are permitted on the

fi eld during the match without the permission of an umpire.

2.6 Players on or off the fi eld are under the jurisdiction of the

umpires throughout the match including the half-time

interval.

2.7 A player who is injured or bleeding must leave the fi eld

unless medical reasons prevent this and must not return

until wounds have been covered ; players must not wear

blood stained clothing.

3 Captains

3.1 One player of each team must be appointed as captain.

3.2 A replacement captain must be appointed when a captain

is suspended.

3.3 Captains must wear a distinctive arm-band or similar

distinguishing article on an upper arm or shoulder or over

the upper part of sock.

3.4 Captains are responsible for the behaviour of all players on

their team and for ensuring that substitutions of players on

their team are carried out correctly.

15

A personal penalty is awarded if a captain does

not exercise these responsibilities.

4 Players’ clothing and equipment

Competition Regulations available from the FIH

provide additional information and requirements

about players’ clothing, personal equipment and

advertising. Refer also to regulations established by

Continental Federations and National Associations.

4.1 Field players of the same team must wear uniform clothing.

4.2 Players must not wear anything which is dangerous to other

players.

Field players :

– are permitted to wear gloves for protection

which do not increase the natural size of the

hands signifi cantly ;

– are recommended to wear shin, ankle and

mouth protection ;

– are permitted to wear throughout a match for

medical reasons only a smooth preferably

transparent or white but otherwise single

coloured face mask which closely fi ts the face,

soft protective head-covering or eye protection

in the form of plastic goggles (ie goggles with

a soft-covered frame and plastic lenses) ; the

medical reasons must be assessed by an

appropriate authority and the player concerned

must understand the possible implications of

playing with the medical condition ;

– are permitted to wear a smooth preferably

transparent or white but otherwise single

coloured face mask which closely fi ts the face

16

when defending a penalty corner or penalty

stroke for the duration of that penalty corner

or penalty stroke and when they are inside the

circle they are defending ;

– other than players with goalkeeping privileges,

are not permitted to wear protective headgear

(face mask or other protective head covering)

in any other circumstances.

4.3 Goalkeepers and players with goalkeeping privileges must

wear a single coloured shirt or garment which is different in

colour from that of both teams.

Goalkeepers (ie wearing full protective equipment)

must wear this shirt or garment over any upper

body protection.

4.4 Goalkeepers must wear protective equipment comprising

at least headgear, leg guards and kickers except that the

headgear and any hand protectors may be removed when

taking a penalty stroke.

The following are permitted for use only by fully

equipped goalkeepers : body, upper arm, elbow,

forearm, hand, thigh and knee protectors, leg

guards and kickers.

4.5 A player with goalkeeping privileges may wear protective

headgear when inside their defending 23 metres area ; they

must wear protective headgear when defending a penalty

corner or penalty stroke.

Protective headgear incorporating a helmet with

fi xed full-face protection and cover for the entire

head and throat is recommended for goalkeepers

and players with goalkeeping privileges.

4.6 Clothing or protective equipment which signifi cantly

increases the natural size of a goalkeeper’s body or area of

protection is not permitted.

17

4.7 The stick has a traditional shape with a handle and a curved

head which is fl at on its left side :

a the stick must be smooth and must not have any rough

or sharp parts

b inclusive of any additional coverings used, the stick

must be able to pass through a ring with an interior

diameter of 51 mm

c any curvature along the length of the stick (the rake or bow)

must have a continuous smooth profi le along the whole

length, must occur along the face side or the back of the

stick but not both and is limited to a depth of 25 mm

d the stick must conform with the specifi cation agreed by

the FIH Rules Committee.

4.8 The ball is spherical, hard and white (or an agreed colour

which contrasts with the playing surface).

Detailed specifi cations of the stick, ball and

goalkeeper’s equipment are provided in a separate

section at the end of these Rules.

5 Match and result

5.1 A match consists of two periods of 35 minutes and a halftime

interval of 5 minutes.

Other periods and interval may be agreed by

both teams except as specifi ed in regulations for

particular competitions.

If time expires just before an umpire would

otherwise have made a decision, umpires are

permitted to make that decision immediately after

the end of the fi rst period or the match.

18

If an incident arises immediately before the end of

the fi rst period (half) or the end of the match which

requires review by the umpires, the review may be

conducted even though time has subsequently

been completed and signaled. The review should

take place immediately and action taken to revert

to and correct the situation as appropriate.

5.2 The team scoring the most goals is the winner ; if no goals

are scored, or if the teams score an equal number of goals,

the match is drawn.

Information about extra time and a shoot-out

competition as ways of reaching a result in a drawn

match is included in Competition Regulations

available from the FIH Offi ce.

6 Start and re-start the match

6.1 A coin is tossed :

a the team which wins the toss has the choice of which

goal to attack in the fi rst half of the match or to start the

match with a centre pass

b if the team winning the toss chooses which goal to

attack in the fi rst half of the match, the opposing team

starts the match

c if the team winning the toss chooses to start the match,

the opposing team has the choice of which goal to

attack in the fi rst half of the match.

6.2 Direction of play is reversed in the second half of the match.

6.3 A centre pass is taken :

a to start the match by a player from the team winning

the toss if they chose this option ; otherwise by a player

from the opposing team

19

b to re-start the match after half-time by a player of the

team which did not take the centre pass to start the

match

c after a goal by a player of the team against which the

goal was scored.

6.4 Taking a centre pass :

a taken at the centre of the fi eld

b it is permitted to play the ball in any direction

c all players other than the player taking the centre pass

must be in the half of the fi eld which includes the goal

they are defending

d the procedures for taking a free hit apply.

6.5 A bully takes place to re-start a match when time or play

has been stopped for an injury or for any other reason and

no penalty has been awarded :

a a bully is taken close to the location of the ball when

play was stopped but not within 15 metres of the backline

and not within 5 metres of the circle

b the ball is placed between one player from each team

who face each other with the goal they are defending

to their right

c the two players start with their sticks on the ground to

the right of the ball and then tap the fl at faces of their

sticks together once just over the ball after which either

player is permitted to play the ball

d all other players must be at least 5 metres from the

ball.

20

6.6 A free hit is taken by a defender 15 metres in front of the

centre of the goal-line to re-start a match when a penalty

stroke has been completed and no goal has been scored.

7 Ball outside the fi eld

7.1 The ball is out of play when it passes completely over the

side-line or back-line.

7.2 Play is restarted by a player of the team which was not

the last team to touch or play the ball before it went out of

play.

7.3 When the ball travels over the side-line, play is re-started

where the ball crossed the line and the procedures for

taking a free hit apply.

7.4 When the ball is played over the back-line and no goal is

scored :

a if played by an attacker, play is re-started with the ball

up to 15 metres from and in line with where it crossed

the back-line and the procedures for taking a free hit

apply

b if played unintentionally by a defender or defl ected by a

goalkeeper or player with goalkeeping privileges, play

is re-started with the ball on the mark 5 metres from

the corner of the fi eld on the side-line nearest to where

the ball crossed the back-line and the procedures for

taking a free hit apply

c if played intentionally by a defender, unless defl ected

by a goalkeeper or player with goalkeeping privileges,

play is re-started with a penalty corner.

21

8 Method of scoring

Mandatory Experimantal Rule

8.1 A goal is scored when:

a the ball is played by an attacker, or touches the stick or

body of a defender, within the circle

b after either of these actions, the ball does not travel

outside the circle before passing completely over the

goal-line and under the cross-bar.

9 Conduct of play : players

Players are expected to act responsibly at all times.

9.1 A match is played between two teams with not more than

eleven players of each team on the fi eld at the same time.

9.2 Players on the fi eld must hold their stick and not use it in a

dangerous way.

Players must not lift their stick over the heads of

other players.

9.3 Players must not touch, handle or interfere with other

players or their sticks or clothing.

9.4 Players must not intimidate or impede another player.

9.5 Players must not play the ball with the back of the stick.

9.6 Players must not hit the ball hard on the forehand with the

edge of the stick.

This does not prohibit use of the edge of the stick

on the forehand in a controlled action in a tackle,

when raising the ball in a controlled way over an

22

opponent’s stick or over a goalkeeper or player with

goalkeeping privileges who is lying on the ground or

when using a long pushing motion along the ground.

The use of the edge of the stick on the backhand

has developed as a technical skill and is permitted

subject to danger.

9.7 Players must not play the ball with any part of the stick

when the ball is above shoulder height except that

defenders are permitted to use the stick to stop or defl ect

a shot at goal at any height.

When saving a shot at goal, a defender must not

be penalised if their stick is not motionless or is

travelling towards the ball while attempting to stop

or defl ect the shot. Only if the ball is genuinely

hit while above shoulder height and a goal is

prevented should a penalty stroke be awarded.

If a defender attempts to stop or defl ect a ball

travelling towards the goal which will actually miss

the goal, any use of the stick above the shoulder

must be penalised by a penalty corner and not a

penalty stroke.

If dangerous play results after a legitimate stop or

defl ection, a penalty corner must be awarded.

9.8 Players must not play the ball dangerously or in a way which

leads to dangerous play.

A ball is considered dangerous when it causes

legitimate evasive action by players.

The penalty is awarded where the action causing

the danger took place.

23

9.9 Players must not intentionally raise the ball from a hit except

for a shot at goal.

A raised hit must be judged explicitly on whether

or not it is raised intentionally. It is not an offence

to raise the ball unintentionally from a hit, including

a free hit, anywhere on the fi eld unless it is

dangerous. If the ball is raised over an opponent’s

stick or body on the ground, even within the circle,

it is permitted unless judged to be dangerous.

Players are permitted to raise the ball with a fl ick

or scoop provided it is not dangerous. A fl ick or

scoop towards an opponent within 5 metres is

considered dangerous. If an opponent is clearly

running into the shot or into the attacker without

attempting to play the ball with their stick, they

should be penalised for dangerous play.

9.10 Players must not approach within 5 metres of an opponent

receiving a falling raised ball until it has been received,

controlled and is on the ground.

The initial receiver has a right to the ball. If it is not

clear which player is the initial receiver, the player

of the team which raised the ball must allow the

opponent to receive it.

9.11 Field players must not stop, kick, propel, pick up, throw or

carry the ball with any part of their body.

It is not always an offence if the ball hits the

foot, hand or body of a fi eld player. The player

only commits an offence if they voluntarily use

their hand, foot or body to play the ball or if they

position themselves with the intention of stopping

the ball in this way.

It is not an offence if the ball hits the hand holding

the stick but would otherwise have hit the stick.

24

9.12 Players must not obstruct an opponent who is attempting

to play the ball.

Players obstruct if they :

– back into an opponent

– physically interfere with the stick or body of an

opponent

– shield the ball from a legitimate tackle with

their stick or any part of their body.

A stationary player receiving the ball is permitted

to face in any direction.

A player with the ball is permitted to move off

with it in any direction except bodily into an

opponent or into a position between the ball and

an opponent who is within playing distance of the

ball and attempting to play it.

A player who runs in front of or blocks an

opponent to stop them legitimately playing or

attempting to play the ball is obstructing (this

is third party or shadow obstruction). This also

applies if an attacker runs across or blocks

defenders (including the goalkeeper or player with

goalkeeping privileges) when a penalty corner is

being taken.

9.13 Players must not tackle unless in a position to play the ball

without body contact.

9.14 Players must not intentionally enter the goal their opponents

are defending or run behind either goal.

9.15 Players must not change their stick between the award and

completion of a penalty corner or penalty stroke unless it no

longer meets the stick specifi cation.

25

9.16 Players must not throw any object or piece of equipment onto

the fi eld, at the ball, or at another player, umpire or person.

9.17 Players must not delay play to gain benefi t by time-wasting.

10 Conduct of play : goalkeepers

and players with goalkeeping privileges

10.1 A goalkeeper who wears protective equipment comprising

at least headgear, leg guards and kickers must not take part

in the match outside the 23 metres area they are defending,

except when taking a penalty stroke.

Protective headgear must be worn by a goalkeeper

at all times, except when taking a penalty stroke.

10.2 A player with goalkeeping privileges must not take part in

the match outside the 23 metres area they are defending

when wearing the protective headgear but may remove the

headgear and take part in the match anywhere on the fi eld.

Protective headgear must be worn by a player with

goalkeeping privileges when defending a penalty

corner or penalty stroke.

10.3 When the ball is inside the circle they are defending and

they have their stick in their hand :

a goalkeepers wearing full protective equipment are

permitted to use their stick, feet, kickers, legs or leg

guards to propel the ball and to use their stick, feet,

kickers, legs, leg guards or any other part of their body

to stop the ball or defl ect it in any direction including

over the back-line

Goalkeepers are not permitted to conduct

themselves in a manner which is dangerous to

other players by taking advantage of the protective

equipment they wear.

26

b players with goalkeeping privileges are permitted to

use their stick, feet and legs to propel the ball and to

use their stick, feet, legs or any other part of their body

to stop the ball or defl ect it in any direction including

over the back-line

c goalkeepers wearing full protective equipment and

players with goalkeeping privileges are permitted to

use arms, hands and any other part of their body to

push the ball away.

The action in rule c above is permitted only as

part of a goal saving action or to move the ball

away from the possibility of a goal scoring action

by opponents. It does not permit a goalkeeper or

player with goalkeeping privileges to propel the

ball forcefully with arms, hands or body so that it

travels a long distance.

10.4 Goalkeepers or players with goalkeeping privileges must

not lie on the ball.

10.5 When the ball is outside the circle they are defending,

goalkeepers or players with goalkeeping privileges are only

permitted to play the ball with their stick.

A player with goalkeeping privileges is considered

to be a fi eld player when outside the circle they

are defending.

11 Conduct of play : umpires

11.1 Two umpires control the match, apply the Rules and are the

judges of fair play.

11.2 Each umpire has primary responsibility for decisions in one

half of the fi eld for the duration of the match.

11.3 Each umpire is responsible for decisions on free hits in the circle,

27

penalty corners, penalty strokes and goals in one half of the fi eld.

11.4 Umpires are responsible for keeping a written record of

goals scored and of warning or suspension cards used.

11.5 Umpires are responsible for ensuring that the full time

is played and for indicating the end of time for each half

and for the completion of a penalty corner if a half is

prolonged.

11.6 Umpires blow the whistle to :

a start and end each half of the match

b start a bully

c enforce a penalty

d start and end a penalty stroke

e indicate a goal

f re-start the match after a goal has been scored

g re-start the match after a penalty stroke when a goal

was not scored

h stop the match for the substitution onto or off the fi eld

of a fully equipped goalkeeper and to restart the match

on completion of the substitution

i stop the match for any other reason and to re-start it

j indicate, when necessary, that the ball has passed

wholly outside the fi eld.

11.7 Umpires must not coach during a match.

11.8 If the ball strikes an umpire, unauthorised person or any

loose object on the fi eld, play continues.

28

12 Penalties

12.1 Advantage : a penalty is awarded only when a player or

team has been disadvantaged by an opponent breaking the

Rules.

If awarding a penalty is not an advantage to the team

which did not break the Rules, play must continue.

12.2 A free hit is awarded to the opposing team :

a for an offence by any player between the 23 metres

areas

b for an offence by an attacker within the 23 metres area

their opponents are defending

c for an unintentional offence by a defender outside

the circle but within the 23 metres area they are

defending.

12.3 A penalty corner is awarded :

a for an offence by a defender in the circle which does

not prevent the probable scoring of a goal

b for an intentional offence in the circle by a defender

against an opponent who does not have possession of

the ball or an opportunity to play the ball

c for an intentional offence by a defender outside the circle

but within the 23 metres area they are defending

d for intentionally playing the ball over the back-line by a

defender

Goalkeepers or players with goalkeeping privileges

are permitted to defl ect the ball with their stick,

protective equipment or any part of their body in

any direction including over the back-line.

29

e when the ball becomes lodged in a player’s clothing or

equipment while in the circle they are defending.

12.4 A penalty stroke is awarded :

a for an offence by a defender in the circle which prevents

the probable scoring of a goal

b for an intentional offence in the circle by a defender

against an opponent who has possession of the ball or

an opportunity to play the ball

c for defenders persistently crossing over the back-line

before permitted during the taking of penalty corners.

12.5 If there is another offence or misconduct before the

awarded penalty has been taken :

a a free hit may be progressed up to 10 metres

A free hit to the attack cannot be progressed to

inside the circle.

b a more severe penalty may be awarded

c a personal penalty may be awarded

d the penalty may be reversed if the subsequent offence

was committed by the team fi rst awarded the penalty.

13 Procedures for taking penalties

13.1 Location of a free hit :

a a free hit is taken close to where the offence occurred

‘Close to’ means within playing distance of where

the offence occurred and with no signifi cant

advantage gained.

30

The location from which a free hit is taken must be

more precise inside the 23 metres area.

b a free hit awarded within 5 metres of the circle to the attack

is taken at the nearest point 5 metres from the circle

c a free hit awarded to the defence within 15 metres of

the back-line is taken up to 15 metres from the backline

in line with the location of the offence, parallel to

the side-line

13.2 Procedures for taking a free hit, centre pass and putting the

ball back into play after it has been outside the fi eld :

All parts of this Rule apply as appropriate to a free

hit, centre pass and putting the ball back into play

after it has been outside the fi eld.

a the ball must be stationary

b opponents must be at least 5 metres from the ball

If an opponent is within 5 metres of the ball, they

must not interfere with the taking of the free hit or

must not play or attempt to play the ball. If this player

is not playing the ball, attempting to play the ball or

infl uencing play, the free hit need not be delayed.

c when a free hit is awarded to the attack within the

23 metres area, all players other than the player taking

the free hit must be at least 5 metres from the ball

d the ball is moved using a hit, push, fl ick or scoop

e the ball may be raised immediately using a push, fl ick or

scoop but must not be raised intentionally using a hit

f from a free hit awarded to the attack within the

23 metres area, the ball must not be played into the

circle until it has travelled at least 5 metres or has been

31

touched by a player of either team other than the player

taking the free hit.

If the player taking the free hit continues to play

the ball (ie no other player has yet played it) :

– that player may play the ball any number of times, but

– the ball must travel at least 5 metres, before

– that player plays the ball into the circle by

hitting or pushing the ball again.

Alternatively :

– another player of either team who can

legitimately play the ball must defl ect, hit or

push the ball before it enters the circle, or

– after this player has touched the ball, it can

be played into the circle by any other player

including the player who took the free hit.

It is permitted to play the ball high above the

attacking circle so that it lands outside the circle

subject to Rules related to dangerous play and

that the ball is not legitimately playable inside or

above the circle by another player during its fl ight.

13.3 Taking a penalty corner :

a the ball is placed on the back-line inside the circle at

least 10 metres from the goal-post on whichever side

of the goal the attacking team prefers

b an attacker pushes or hits the ball without intentionally

raising it

c the attacker taking the push or hit from the back-line

must have at least one foot outside the fi eld

32

d the other attackers must be on the fi eld, outside the

circle with sticks, hands and feet not touching the

ground inside the circle

e no defender or attacker other than the attacker taking the

push or hit from the back-line is permitted to be within

5 metres of the ball when the push or hit is taken

f not more than fi ve defenders, including the goalkeeper

or player with goalkeeping privileges if there is one, must

be positioned behind the back-line with their sticks,

hands and feet not touching the ground inside the fi eld

If the team defending a penalty corner has chosen

to play only with fi eld players, none of the defenders

referred to above has goalkeeping privileges.

g the other defenders must be beyond the centre-line

h until the ball has been played, no attacker other than

the one taking the push or hit from the back-line

is permitted to enter the circle and no defender is

permitted to cross the centre-line or back-line

i after playing the ball, the attacker taking the push or

hit from the back-line must not play the ball again or

approach within playing distance of it until it has been

played by another player

j a goal cannot be scored until the ball has travelled

outside the circle

k if the fi rst shot at goal is a hit (as opposed to a push,

fl ick or scoop), the ball must cross the goal-line, or be

on a path which would have resulted in it crossing the

goal-line, at a height of not more than 460 mm (the

height of the backboard) before any defl ection, for a

goal to be scored

The requirements of this Rule apply even if the ball

33

touches the stick or body of a defender before the

fi rst shot at goal.

If the fi rst shot at goal is a hit and the ball is, or

will be, too high crossing the goal-line it must be

penalised even if the ball is subsequently defl ected

off the stick or body of another player.

The ball may be higher than 460 mm during its

fl ight before it crosses the goal-line provided there

is no danger and provided it would drop of its own

accord below 460 mm before crossing the line.

‘Slap’ hitting the ball, which involves a long pushing

or sweeping movement with the stick before making

contact with the ball, is regarded as a hit.

l for second and subsequent hits at the goal and for

fl icks, defl ections and scoops, it is permitted to raise

the ball to any height but this must not be dangerous

A defender who is clearly running into the shot or

into the taker without attempting to play the ball with

their stick must be penalised for dangerous play.

Otherwise, if a defender is within fi ve metres of

the fi rst shot at goal during the taking of a penalty

corner and is struck by the ball below the knee,

another penalty corner must be awarded or is

struck on or above the knee in a normal stance,

the shot is judged to be dangerous and a free hit

must be awarded to the defending team.

m the penalty corner Rules no longer apply if the ball

travels more than 5 metres from the circle.

13.4 The match is prolonged at half-time and full-time to allow

completion of a penalty corner or any subsequent penalty

corner or penalty stroke.

34

13.5 The penalty corner is completed when:

a a goal is scored

b a free hit is awarded to the defending team

c the ball travels more than 5 metres outside the circle

d the ball is played over the back-line and a penalty

corner is not awarded

e a defender commits an offence which does not result in

another penalty corner

f a penalty stroke is awarded

g a bully is awarded.

If play is stopped because of an injury or for any

other reason during the taking of a penalty corner

at the end of a prolonged fi rst or second half and

a bully would otherwise be awarded, the penalty

corner must be taken again.

13.6 For substitution purposes and for completion of a penalty

corner at half-time and full-time, the penalty corner is also

completed when the ball travels outside the circle for the

second time.

13.7 For an offence during the taking of a penalty corner :

a the player taking the push or hit from the back-line does

not have at least one foot outside the fi eld : the penalty

corner is taken again

b for any other offence by the player taking the push

or hit from the back-line : a free hit is awarded to the

defence

35

c a defender crosses over the centre-line or back-line

before permitted : the penalty corner is taken again

d an attacker enters the circle before permitted : the

penalty corner is taken again

e for any other offence by attackers : a free hit is awarded

to the defence.

Except as specifi ed above, a free hit, penalty

corner or penalty stroke is awarded as specifi ed

elsewhere in the Rules.

13.8 Taking a penalty stroke :

a time and play is stopped when a penalty stroke is

awarded

b all players on the fi eld other than the player taking the

stroke and the player defending it must stand outside

the 23 metres area and must not infl uence the taking of

the stroke

c the ball is placed on the penalty spot

d the player taking the stroke must stand behind and

within playing distance of the ball before beginning the

stroke

e the player defending the stroke must stand with both

feet on the goal-line and must not leave the goal-line or

move either foot until the ball has been played

f if the player defending the stroke is a goalkeeper or

player with goalkeeping privileges, they must wear

protective headgear ; if the player defending the

stroke is otherwise taking part in the game as a fi eld

player, they may wear only a face mask as protective

equipment

36

If the team defending a penalty stroke has chosen

to play only with fi eld players and not to use a

substitute goalkeeper or player with goalkeeping

privileges to defend the penalty stroke, the

defender may only use their stick to make a save.

g the whistle is blown when the player taking the stroke

and the player defending it are in position

h the player taking the stroke must not take it until the

whistle has been blown

The player taking the stroke or the player defending

it must not delay the taking of the stroke.

i the player taking the stroke must not feint at playing the ball

j the player taking the stroke must push, fl ick or scoop

the ball and is permitted to raise it to any height

Using a ‘dragging’ action to play the ball at a

penalty stroke is not permitted.

k the player taking the stroke must play the ball only once

and must not subsequently approach either the ball or

the player defending the stroke.

13.9 The penalty stroke is completed when :

a a goal is scored

b the ball comes to rest inside the circle, lodges in the

goalkeeper’s equipment, is caught by the goalkeeper

or player with goalkeeping privileges, or goes outside

the circle.

13.10 For an offence during the taking of a penalty stroke :

a the stroke is taken before the whistle is blown and a

goal is scored : the penalty stroke is taken again

37

b the stroke is taken before the whistle is blown and a

goal is not scored : a free hit is awarded to the defence

c for any other offence by the player taking the stroke : a

free hit is awarded to the defence

d for any offence by the player defending the stroke

including moving either foot before the ball has been

played : the penalty stroke is taken again

If the player defending the stroke prevents a goal

being scored but moves either foot before the

ball has been played, this player must be warned

(green card) and for any subsequent offence must

be suspended (yellow card).

If a goal is scored even though there has been

an offence by the player defending the stroke, the

goal is awarded.

e for an offence by a player of the defending team and a

goal is not scored : the penalty stroke is taken again

f for an offence by a player of the attacking team other

than the player taking the stroke and a goal is scored :

the penalty stroke is taken again.

14 Personal penalties

14.1 For any offence, the offending player may be :

a cautioned (indicated by spoken words)

b warned (indicated by a green card)

At an international match, a green card indicates a

temporary suspension of 2 minutes of playing time.

38

c temporarily suspended for a minimum of 5 minutes of

playing time (indicated by a yellow card)

For the duration of each temporary suspension

of a player on or off the fi eld, the offending team

plays with one less player.

d permanently suspended from the current match

(indicated by a red card).

For each permanent suspension, the offending

team plays for the remainder of the match with

one less player.

A personal penalty may be awarded in addition to

the appropriate penalty.

14.2 Temporarily suspended players must remain in a designated

place until permitted by the umpire who suspended them to

resume play.

14.3 Temporarily suspended players are permitted to rejoin their

team at half-time after which they must return to a designated

place to complete their suspension.

14.4 The intended duration of a temporary suspension may be

extended for misconduct by a player while suspended.

14.5 Permanently suspended players must leave the fi eld and its

surrounding area.

39

UMPIRING

1 Objectives

1.1 Umpiring hockey is a challenging but rewarding way to

participate in the game.

1.2 Umpires contribute to the game by :

a helping to raise the standard of the game at all levels by

ensuring that players observe the Rules

b ensuring that every game is played in the right spirit

c helping to increase the enjoyment of the game for

players, spectators, and others.

1.3 These objectives can be achieved by umpires being :

a consistent : umpires maintain the respect of players by

being consistent

b fair : decisions must be made with a sense of justice

and integrity

c prepared : no matter how long an umpire has been

offi ciating, it is important to prepare thoroughly for

every match

d focused : concentration must be maintained at all

times ; nothing must be allowed to distract an umpire

e approachable : a good understanding of the Rules must

be combined with a good rapport with the players

f better : umpires must aim to become even better with

each and every match

g natural : an umpire must be themselves, and not imitate

another person, at all times.

40

1.4 Umpires must :

a have a thorough knowledge of the Rules of Hockey

but remember that the spirit of the Rule and common

sense must govern interpretation

b support and encourage skilful play, deal promptly

and fi rmly with offences and apply the appropriate

penalties

c establish control and maintain it throughout the match

d use all the available tools for control

e apply the advantage Rule as much as possible to assist

a fl owing and open match but without losing control.

2 Applying the rules

2.1 Protecting skilful play and penalising offences :

a the relative seriousness of an offence must be identifi ed

and serious offences such as dangerous or rough play

dealt with early and fi rmly in a match

b intentional offences must be penalised fi rmly

c umpires must demonstrate that if players co-operate,

skilful play will be protected and the match will be

interrupted only when essential for its proper conduct.

2.2 Advantage :

a it is not necessary for every offence to be penalised

when no benefi t is gained by the offender ; unnecessary

interruptions to the fl ow of the match cause undue

delay and irritation

41

b when the Rules have been broken, an umpire must

apply advantage if this is the most severe penalty

c possession of the ball does not automatically mean there

is an advantage ; for advantage to apply, the player/team

with the ball must be able to develop their play

d having decided to play advantage, a second opportunity

must not be given by reverting to the original penalty

e it is important to anticipate the fl ow of the match, to

look beyond the action of the moment and to be aware

of potential developments in the match.

2.3 Control :

a decisions must be made promptly, positively, clearly

and consistently

b strict action early in a match will usually discourage

repetition of an offence

c it is not acceptable for players to abuse opponents,

umpires or other technical offi cials verbally or through

body language and attitude. Umpires must deal fi rmly

with abuse of this sort and in appropriate circumstances

issue a caution, warning (green card), or a temporary

(yellow card) or permanent (red card) suspension.

Cautions, warnings and suspensions can be given in

isolation or in combination with another penalty

d cautions can be given to players in close proximity

without stopping the match

e it is possible, although umpires are not encouraged to

do so, for a player to receive two green or two yellow

cards for different minor offences during the same match.

However, when an offence for which a card has already

been awarded is repeated, the same card must not be

used again and a more severe penalty must be awarded

42

f when a second yellow card is awarded, the period of

suspension must be signifi cantly longer than the fi rst

suspension

g there must be a clear difference between the duration

of a yellow card suspension for a minor offence and the

duration for a more serious and/or physical offence

h when a player intentionally misbehaves in a serious

manner towards another player, umpire or other match

offi cial the red card must be shown immediately.

2.4 Penalties :

a a wide range of penalties is available

b two penalties can be used together to deal with bad or

persistent offences.

3 Umpiring skills

3.1 The main umpiring skill areas are :

a match preparation

b co-operation

c mobility and positioning

d whistling

e signalling.

3.2 Match preparation :

a umpires must prepare thoroughly for each match by

arriving at the fi eld in good time

43

b before the match commences, both umpires must

check the fi eld markings, the goals and the nets and

check for any dangerous playing equipment or fi eld

equipment

c the two umpires must wear similar colours to one

another, but different from those of both teams

d clothing appropriate to the conditions must be worn

e footwear must suit fi eld conditions and assist mobility

f umpiring equipment includes a copy of the current

Rules book, a loud and distinctive whistle, a stop

watch, coloured cards to indicate personal penalties

and materials to record match details.

3.3 Co-operation :

a good team-work and co-operation between umpires is

essential

b prior to a match, umpires must discuss and agree how

they are going to work together to assist each other.

Eye contact between umpires must be practised and

maintained

c umpires must take responsibility and be prepared

to assist when their colleague is unsighted or has

diffi culty seeing certain parts of the fi eld. If necessary

and if mobility is good, umpires must be prepared to

cross the centre-line and go as far as appropriate into

a colleague’s half of the fi eld to assist. This helps to

reassure players that decisions are correct

d a written record of goals scored and cards issued must

be kept by both umpires and confi rmed at the end of

the match.

44

3.4 Mobility and positioning :

a umpires must be mobile so they can move to appropriate

positions throughout the match.

b static umpires cannot view play clearly enough to make

correct decisions at all times

c fi t, mobile and well positioned umpires are better able

to concentrate on the fl ow of the match and on the

decisions which need to be made

d each umpire operates mainly in half of the fi eld with the

centre line to their left

e in general, the most suitable position for umpires is

ahead of and on the right of the attacking team

f for play between the centre-line and 23 metres area,

umpires must be positioned near their side-line

g when play is in the 23 metres area or circle, umpires

must move further into the fi eld away from the sidelines

and, when necessary, into the circle itself to see

important offences and to judge whether shots at goal

are legitimate

h for penalty corners and after the ball has gone outside

the fi eld, umpires must take up a position which gives a

clear view of all potential action

i for penalty strokes, umpires must take up a position

behind and to the right of the player taking the stroke

j umpires must not allow their positioning to interfere

with the fl ow of play

k umpires must face the players all the time.

45

3.5 Whistling :

a the whistle is the main way in which umpires

communicate with players, each other and other

persons involved in the match

b the whistle must be blown decisively and loudly enough

for all involved in the match to be able to hear it. This

does not mean long loud whistling at all times

c the tone and duration of the whistle must be varied to

communicate the seriousness of offences to players.

3.6 Signalling :

a signals must be clear and held up long enough to

ensure that all players and the other umpire are aware

of decisions

b only the offi cial signals must be used

c it is preferable to be stationary when giving a signal

d directional signals must not be made across the body

e it is bad practice to look away from the players when a

signal or decision is made ; further offences might be

missed, concentration can be lost, or this can indicate

a lack of confi dence.

4 Umpiring signals

4.1 Timing :

a start time : turn towards the other umpire with one arm

straight up in the air

b stop time : turn towards the other umpire and cross

fully-extended arms at the wrists above the head

46

c two minutes of play remaining : raise both hands

straight up in the air with pointing index fi ngers

d one minute of play remaining : raise one hand straight

up in the air with pointing index fi nger.

Once a timing signal has been acknowledged no

further time signal is needed.

4.2 Bully : move hands alternately up and down in front of the

body with palms facing each other.

4.3 Ball out of play :

a ball out of play over the side-line : indicate the direction

with one arm raised horizontally

b ball out of play over the back-line by an attacker : face

the centre of the fi eld and extend both arms horizontally

sideways

c ball out of play over the back-line unintentionally by

a defender : point one arm at the corner fl ag nearest

where the ball crossed the back-line.

4.4 Goal scored : point both arms horizontally towards the

centre of the fi eld.

4.5 Conduct of play :

Signals for conduct of play offences must be

shown if there is doubt about the reason for the

decision.

a dangerous play : place one forearm diagonally across

the chest

b misconduct and/or bad temper : stop play and make

a calming movement by moving both hands slowly up

and down, palms downward, in front of the body

47

c kick : slightly raise a leg and touch it near the foot or

ankle with the hand

d raised ball : hold palms facing each other horizontally in

front of the body, with one palm approximately 150 mm

above the other

e obstruction : hold crossed forearms in front of the

chest

f third party or shadow obstruction : alternately open and

close crossed forearms in front of the chest

g stick obstruction : hold one arm out and downwards

in front of the body half-way between vertical and

horizontal ; touch the forearm with the other hand

h 5 metres distance : extend one arm straight up in the air

showing an open hand with all fi ngers extended.

4.6 Penalties :

a advantage : extend one arm high from the shoulder in

the direction in which the benefi ting team is playing

b free hit : indicate the direction with one arm raised

horizontally

c free hit progressed up to 10 metres : raise one arm

vertically with fi st clenched

d penalty corner : point both arms horizontally towards

the goal

e penalty stroke : point one arm at the penalty stroke

mark and the other straight up in the air ; this signal

also indicates time stopped.

48

FIELD AND EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS

Diagrams are provided to assist interpretation of

these specifi cations but they are not necessarily

drawn to scale. The text is the defi nitive

specifi cation.

1 Field and fi eld equipment

1.1 The fi eld of play is rectangular, 91.40 metres long bounded

by side-lines and 55 metres wide bounded by back-lines.

The playing surface must continue (to create

“run-off” areas) for a minimum of 2 metres at the

back-lines and 1 metre at the side-lines with an

additional unobstructed 1 metre in each case (that

is, a total of 3 metres at the ends and 2 metres

at the sides of the fi eld). These are minimum

requirements with the respective recommended

areas being 3 plus 2 metres and 3 plus 1 metres

(that is, a total of 5 metres at the ends and 4

metres at the sides of the fi eld).

1.2 Markings :

a no marks other than those described in this Rule are to

be made on the playing surface

b lines are 75 mm wide and must be clearly marked along

their entire length

c the side-lines and back-lines and all markings enclosed

between them are part of the fi eld

d all marks must be made in white.

49

1.3 Lines and other marks :

a side-lines : 91.40 metres long perimeter lines

b back-lines : 55.00 metres long perimeter lines

c goal-lines : the parts of the back-lines between the

goal-posts

d centre-line : across the middle of the fi eld

e 22.90 metres lines across the fi eld 22.90 metres from

each back-line as measured between the furthest

edges of each line

The areas enclosed by and including the 22.90

metres lines, the relevant part of the side-lines,

and the back-line are known as the 23 metres

areas.

f lines 300 mm long marked outside the fi eld on each

side-line with the further edge of the lines 14.63 metres

from and parallel to the outer edge of the back-lines

g lines 300 mm long marked outside the fi eld on each

side-line with the further edge of the lines 5 metres

from and parallel to the outer edge of the back-lines

h lines 300 mm long marked outside the fi eld on each

back-line on both sides of the goal at 5 metres and 10

metres from the outer edge of the nearer goal-post, as

measured between the furthest edges of each line

The markings described in Rules 1.3 f, g and h

were moved from inside to outside the fi eld with

effect from 2001. The distances in Rule 1.3 h

were converted to metric at the same time. These

revised markings apply to all new and re-marked

fi elds. However, existing fi elds with the previously

specifi ed markings may continue to be used.

50

i lines 150 mm long marked outside the fi eld on each

back-line 1.83 metres from the centre of the back-line,

as measured between the nearest edges of these

lines

j penalty spots 150 mm in diameter marked in front of

the centre of each goal with the centre of each spot

6.475 metres from the outer edge of the goal-line.

1.4 Circles :

a lines 3.66 metres long and parallel to the back-lines are

marked inside the fi eld with their centres in line with the

centres of the back-lines ; the distance from the outside

edges of these 3.66 metres lines to the outside edges

of the back-lines is 14.63 metres

b these lines are continued in uninterrupted arcs in both

directions to meet the back-lines in the form of quartercircles

with centres at the inside front corner of the

nearer goal-posts

c the 3.66 metres line and the arcs are called the circlelines

; the spaces enclosed by these lines, including the

lines themselves, are called the circles

d broken lines are marked with their outer edges 5

metres from the outer edge of each circle-line ; each

broken line starts with a solid section at the top centre

of the circle-line and each solid section is 300 mm long

with gaps between the solid sections 3 metres long

These broken lines became mandatory for

international matches with effect from 1 June

2000. Their adoption for other matches is at the

discretion of National Associations.

51

Figure 1 : Field of Play

52

Field Dimensions

Code Metres Code Metres

A 55.00 M 0.15

B 45.70 N 3.66

C 22.90 P 5.00

D 0.30 Q 14.63

E 5.00 R 91.40

F 3.00 1 minimum 2.00

G 0.30 2 1.00

H* 4.975* (1 + 2) minimum 3.00

I* 9.975* 3 minimum 1.00

J 14.63 4 1.00

K 3.66 (3 + 4) minimum 2.00

L 6.475

* Dimensions H and I are measured from the goal-post line

and not from the goal-post itself ; the dimensions from the

goal-post are 5.00 metres and 10.00 metres respectively.

1.5 Goals :

a two vertical goal-posts joined by a horizontal crossbar

are placed at the centre of each back-line on the

external marks

b the goal-posts and cross-bar are white, rectangular in

cross section, 50 mm wide and between 50 mm and

75 mm deep

c the goal-posts must not extend vertically beyond the

cross-bar and the cross-bar must not extend horizontally

beyond the goal-posts

53

d the distance between the inner edges of the goal-posts

is 3.66 metres and the distance from the lower edge of

the cross-bar to the ground is 2.14 metres

e the space outside the fi eld, behind the goal-posts

and cross-bar and enclosed by the net, side-boards

and backboard is a minimum of 0.90 metres deep at

the cross-bar and a minimum of 1.20 metres deep at

ground-level.

1.6 Side-boards and back-boards :

a side-boards are 460 mm high and a minimum of 1.20

metres long

b back-boards are 460 mm high and 3.66 metres long

c side-boards are positioned on the ground at right

angles to the back-line and are fi xed to the back of the

goal-posts without increasing their width

d back-boards are positioned on the ground at right

angles to the side-boards and parallel to the back-line,

and are fi xed to the end of the side-boards

e side-boards and back-boards are of a dark colour on

the inside.

1.7 Nets :

a the maximum mesh size is 45 mm

b attachment to the back of the goal-posts and cross-bar

is at intervals of not more than 150 mm

c the nets hang outside the side-boards and back-board

d the nets are secured so as to prevent the ball passing

between the net and the goal-posts, cross-bar, sideboards

and back-boards

54

e the nets are fi tted loosely to prevent the ball rebounding.

Figure 2 : Goal

Goal Dimensions

Code Metres Code Metres

A 3.66 E minimum 0.90

B 2.14 F 0.050

C 0.46 G 0.050 to 0.075

D minimum 1.20

1.8 Flag-posts :

a fl ag-posts are between 1.20 and 1.50 metres in height

b fl ag-posts are placed at each corner of the fi eld

c fl ag-posts must not be dangerous

d if unbreakable, fl ag-posts must be attached to a spring

base

e fl ag-posts carry fl ags, not exceeding 300 mm in width

or length.

55

2 Stick

The following revised specifi cation applies to

all hockey with effect from 1 January 2013.

However, National Associations are requested

to use discretion when applying this revised

specifi cation at lower hockey playing levels where

it is reasonable to permit continued use of sticks

meeting the previous specifi cation.

All measurements are made and other

specifi cations assessed with any coverings or

additional fi xings attached to the stick (that is, with

the stick in the form in which it is used on the fi eld).

2.1 This section specifi es the properties of the stick. Properties

outside the specifi cations are not permitted. Although the

properties are described as explicitly as possible, the FIH

reserves the right to prohibit any stick which, in the opinion

of the FIH Rules Committee, is unsafe or likely to have a

detrimental impact on playing the game.

Figure 3 : The stick Figure 4 : The Head of the stick

56

2.2 The shape and dimensions of the stick are tested by placing

the stick playing side downwards on a fl at surface marked

with the lines shown in fi gures 3 and 4. Lines A, A1, B, B1

and Y are parallel and are perpendicular to lines C and X.

The dimensions in fi gures 3 and 4 are:

line A to line A1 51 mm

line A to line B 20 mm

line A1 to line B1 20 mm

line A to line Y 25.5 mm

line C to line X 100 mm

2.3 The stick has a traditional shape, consisting of the handle

and the head:

a the stick is positioned in fi gures 3 and 4 so that the line

Y passes through the centre of the top of the handle;

the handle of the stick starts at line C and continues in

the direction Y+.

b the base of the head of the stick is positioned touching

line X; the head of the stick starts at line X and

terminates at line C.

2.4 The stick is assessed with any covering, coating or fi xing

belonging to the stick.

2.5 In any of the specifi cations below, the following defi nitions

apply:

a “smooth” means without any rough or sharp parts. The

surface must be even and regular, free from perceptible

projections or indentations and not rough, wrinkled,

pitted, grooved or scored. No edge shall have an angle

with radius smaller than 3 mm.

57

b “fl at” means without any curved, high or hollow parts

having a radius smaller than 2 m, transforming smoothly

to an edge with a radius not smaller than 3 mm.

c “continuous” means all along the defi ned subject

without interruption.

2.6 The playing side of the stick is the entire side shown in

fi gures 3 and 4 and the edges of that side.

2.7 The transition from handle to head must be smooth and

continuous without any unevenness or other discontinuity.

2.8 The head must be a ‘J’ or ‘U’ shape the upturned or open

end of which is limited by the line C.

2.9 The head is not limited between lines C and X in the

direction X- or X+.

2.10 The head must be fl at on the left hand side only (the side

which is to the player’s left when the stick is held with

the open end of the head pointing directly away from the

player’s front, ie the side shown in the diagrams).

2.11 A single convex or concave deviation with a smooth

continuous profi le and of maximum 4 mm at any point is

permitted across the otherwise fl at playing side of the head

of the stick and any continuation of it along the handle.

Deviation is tested by placing a straight edge of

length 53mm across the stick at any point along

the playing side and using a standard pointed

depth gauge; the device used to measure bow

or rake and shown in fi gure 6 can also be used

for this purpose. The depth of concave curvature

below the straight edge must not exceed 4 mm.

Other indentations or grooves are not permitted

on the playing side of the stick.

58

2.12 The fl at playing side of the head of the stick and any

continuation of it along the handle must be smooth.

2.13 A twist or twists along the fl at playing side of the

stick from the head and any continuation of it along

the handle are not permitted; ie the intersection of the

plane comprising the fl at playing side of the stick with

any plane comprising all or part of the fl at side of the

handle must remain parallel to line C-C.

2.14 It is permitted for the handle to be bent or curved to

protrude beyond the line A once only to the limiting line

B at maximum or but not also to be bent or curved to

protrude beyond the line A1 once only to the limiting

line B1 at maximum.

2.15 Any curvature along the length of the stick (the bow or

rake) must have a continuous smooth profi le along the

whole length, must occur along the playing side or the

back of the stick but not both and is limited to a depth

of 25 mm. The point of maximum bow must not be

closer to the base of the head (line X in fi gure 3) than

200 mm. Multiple curves are not permitted.

The stick is laid playing side downwards on a fl at

surface in its natural resting position as shown in

fi gure 5. The device shown in fi gure 6 is used

to measure the bow or rake and is placed with

its base on the testing surface. The 25mm high

end of the device must not pass freely more than

8mm under the stick at any point; ie this end of

the device must not pass freely under the stick to

the extent that the edge of the stick touches the

remaining part of the device.

59

Figure 5 : The stick rake or bow

Figure 6 : Device for measuring stick bow or rake

2.16 The edges and the non-playing side (back) of the stick must

be rounded and must have a continuous smooth profi le.

Flat sections along the edges or back of the stick are not

permitted.

Smooth and shallow undulations or indentations

on the back of the handle are permitted to a

maximum depth of 4 mm. No undulations or

indentations are permitted on the back of the head

of the stick.

2.17 Inclusive of any additional coverings used, the stick must

pass through a ring with an interior diameter of 51 mm.

2.18 The total weight of the stick must not exceed 737 grams.

2.19 Ball speed must not be greater than 98 % of stick head

speed under test conditions.

60

Ball speed is determined over a series of 5 tests

at a stick speed of 80 km/hour in the simulator of

an FIH approved laboratory. Ball speed is

calculated from the time the ball passes two

measuring points and is expressed as a ratio to

the specifi ed stick speed. FIH approved hockey

balls are used. The test is carried out at prevailing

laboratory conditions with a temperature of

approximately 20°C and relative humidity of

approximately 50 %.

2.20 The entire stick must be smooth.

Any stick which poses a potential risk for play is

prohibited.

2.21 The stick and possible additions may be made of or contain

any material other than metal or metallic components

provided it is fi t for the purpose of playing hockey and is not

hazardous.

2.22 The application of tapes and resins is permitted provided

that they are not hazardous and that the stick conforms to

the specifi cations.

3 Ball

3.1 The ball :

a is spherical

b has a circumference of between 224 mm and 235 mm

c weighs between 156 grams and 163 grams

d is made of any material and coloured white (or an agreed

colour which contrasts with the playing surface)

e is hard with a smooth surface but indentations are

permitted.

61

4 Goalkeeper’s equipment

4.1 Hand protectors :

a each have a maximum width of 228 mm and length of

355 mm when laid fl at, palm upwards

b must not have any additions to retain the stick when the

stick is not held in the hand.

4.2 Leg guards : each have a maximum width of 300 mm when

on the leg of the goalkeeper.

The dimensions of goalkeeper’s hand protectors

and leg guards are measured using gauges with

the relevant internal dimensions.

62

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION AVAILABLE

The International Hockey Federation can provide information on

various topics to assist participation in the sport.

Indoor Hockey

A separate publication provides :

– the Rules of Indoor Hockey.

A guide to indoor facilities is also available

Synthetic Fields and Lighting (Outdoor)

Information is available about :

– performance requirements

– guidelines for care and maintenance

– approved synthetic turf manufacturers

– installing pitches and facilities

– artifi cial lighting.

Competition Regulations and Management

Information includes :

– roles and responsibilities of competition offi cials

– specifi cation of team clothing, equipment and colours

– advertising

– interruptions of a match

– procedures for handling protests

– competition plan and ranking procedure.

63

Umpiring

Information of interest to umpires includes :

– grading criteria for FIH umpires

– handbook for international umpires including information

about umpiring skills, competition and mental preparation

and a fi tness programme

– umpire managers’ competition checklist including

information about duties, umpire coaching, fi tness testing,

performance feedback and assessor forms.

Hockey Development Resources

Various materials produced by hockey participants

throughout the world are available in print, on video

and on compact-disk. They include :

– beginner, development and elite coaching

– school and youth programmes

– mini-hockey

– course manuals.

The information above is available on the FIH website :

www.fi h.ch

or from the FIH Offi ce :

The International Hockey Federation

Rue du Valentin 61

1004 Lausanne

Switzerland

Tel. : ++41 (21) 641 0606

Fax : ++41 (21) 641 0607

E-mail : info@fi h.ch

64

PURCHASE OF RULES BOOKS

• Price per copy for up to 10 copies is Swiss Francs (CHF)

10.00 including postage and handling.

• For more than ten copies, postage and handling may vary,

so contact the FIH Offi ce for a price.

• Payment must accompany each order.

• Payment instructions are available on the FIH website

www.fi h.ch or from the FIH Offi ce.

Copyright © FIH 2012

The Copyright of these Rules is held by the International Hockey

Federation. The contents may be reproduced or translated for

distribution or resale by affi liated National Associations. Reprints

must replicate the appearance of these Rules and incorporate

the following text : “ Reprinted with permission of the International

Hockey Federation ”. National Associations seeking guidance on the

reprinting of this Book must contact the FIH Offi ce.

 

International Hockey Federation

Rue du Valentin 61

CH-1004 Lausanne, Switzerland

Tel. : +41 21 641 0606

Fax : +41 21 641 0607

info@fih.ch

www.fih.ch